Principles of Lightning and Surge Protection

KingAnthony 30 Jan 2019 - 17:52 0 Komentar
Lightning strokes, which figure to 200 kA or 300 kV, cause hazards to the equipment or location, so lightning protection is essential for operation.
Let us commence with your initial note about what is lightning and why lightning protection is really important. The essential phenomenon behind lightning is the fact that charges accumulated from the cloud as well as the earth are equal and opposite. This forms a non-uniform potential gradient surface via a flight. In the event the gradient is larger compared to potential in the surface, the breakdown occurs along with a "streamer" flows through the cloud for the earth.
An immediate stroke takes place when the lightning hits the energy systems directly the immense potential will result in destruction of the equipment or the facility. In contrast, an indirect stroke is carried out in the lightning discharges inside the proximity in the power line or from electrostatic discharge about the conductor due to charged clouds.
The key power system elements requiring lightning protection are power feeds, home alarm systems, telephone lines, data and control systems and RF cables.
Ways of Lightning Protection. The rolling sphere strategy is employed for identifying the complete placement of the lightning and surge protection devices close to the equipment under operation.

Protection of the power line against direct strokes is via a ground wire or protector tube. The first kind produces electrostatic screening, which is affected by the capacitances of the cloud to line as well as the line to ground. The second forms an arc between your electrodes, causing gas deionisation.
Rooftop/Frame Protection. It can be interesting to notice that this building and rooftop frame or cladding is preferably metal than insulation type.
Setting up a finial towards the top of the energy tower must have a minimum distance of merely one.5 m higher than the highest antenna or lights. This type of rooftop or building frame is made from reinforced steel for protection purpose.
Wooden towers without downconductors could cause a fireplace hazard, while they route the incoming charges to ground. In principal, for non-metallic roofs, proper downconductors ought to be installed at the appropriate location and height.
Device Protection. Antenna lightning protection is provided through spark gap, the gas discharge tube and quad-wavelength shorted stub. The initial method uses ball points to ensure that if your strike occurs, high potential forms bewteen barefoot and shoes along with the ground. The second method causes gas deionisation through arc formation involving the electrodes. The very last method runs on the coax transmission line throughout the transmission line to ensure system bandwidth is narrow.
A lightning arrester is a device offering lightning protection by regulating spark gaps. These devices classification may range from rod gap, horn gap and valve type to metal oxide lightning arresters.
Earthing and Bonding Solutions. Now let us discuss how earthing and bonding solutions for lightning protection should be afforded. The style of earth rods, terminals or clamps should be you might say to route the incoming transients to earth to minimise step and touch potentials. The geometric measurements chosen should abide by the IEEE and NFPA standards. Any earthing system needs to have proper bonding, as ground potential rise can't be compensated. Again, the number of interconnects and spacing should be designed per the lightning standards.
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